- What is a Smartphone
- Main parts of smartphone
- Cell phone Operating system
- How to select your smartphone
- What is e-pads reader
Understanding smart cell-phone function
A smartphone is a mobile phone built on a mobile operating system. This type of phones called by smart because it contain between 10 and 15 sensors plus can an open source of applications. Sensors may detect a lot of information which may help the user to know his location (3D), speed, detect light luminous, noise dB, find the magnetic Earth North, detect metal, atmospheric pressure, temperature (usually of the battery)…, take photos, open internet, running a wide range of tools (It is similar to a computer but with limited capacity and speed). So the smartphone is one device can replace a lot of another devices such: Old mobile phone, a lot of devices which may have sensors, dictionaries, notebook, mp3 or mp4 pod and recorder, radio, (also it may replace small TV and remote control for compatible modern TV), some of them it may have a pen, camera (still photos and videos, but limited power for camera [lens focal range] but a good number of pixels [resolution]) , calculators (normal, graphics, programmable…), diary pad, a large capacity of people contact information, torch and flashlight, electronic games devices, can be used as flash memory storage ,and for software we have… chatting, Engineering software (AutoCAD, Gas calculation, pipes size,…) Excel, word, pdf reader, stocks processing, buying software or product (e-commercial) and any software made for computer it may make for smartphone), A wide range of photography (panorama, editing photos…), show a precast of weather using the internet or any service you may have on computer you will have on this phone type using (3G, 4G… and Wi-Fi) and so on.
Main parts of smartphone
- LCD or LED and touchable screen with different size. which display the interface with the user.
- Mobile phone antenna radiation between 1850 and 1900 MHz or Ultra High Frequency (UHF) waves at power between 1.2 to 1.8 watt. This frequency hold the communication of the call, message, or internet through mobile co. or provider.
- Wi-Fi antenna to connect to a modem (modulator-demodulator), router for internet use (usually at 2.4 GHz)
- Bluetooth to connect one cellular to another without wire, and use to transfer data such text, images, videos, files…for more…
- CPU core (central processor unit) and memory. The base memory divided into two parts one for OS (operating system) use and one for data storage and can be used as flash memory (Known as USB) and other memory is named SD card (Secure Digital memory card) this can be added later when user needs for it. CPU speed affected by CPU bus data transfer in bits (now we have 32bits), CPU frequency or fictive operation frequency (any real operation need many frequency from the CPU to be done). Since we have a high CPU frequency (modern cell phones) they (phones) can operate in multi-tasking (many application can be run in the same time). Also RAM has an internal frequency to transfer data from it to the CPU or other parts. for more…, more…, and more…
- Battery, is made from lithium-ions (Li-ions) cathode and anode are made from Li as base material and other material. Capacity measured by mAh (milli-Amper x hour) for more… and more…
- SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module or Subscriber Identification Module), is the card to connect through to your cellular provider. for more…
- Charger, there are 110 / 220 V socket charger, USB charger cable which we can connect it with a computer, TV, receiver or any device has USB connection and car adapter charger.
- Finally the sensors and devices: (Not all mobiles have these sensors)
- Accelerometer: Measure the acceleration in all directions (the change of phone speed) m/s2
- Gravity sensor: Measure the Earth gravity on the phone.
- Gyroscope sensor: Measure the angle speed or cell phone speed of rotation (radian or degree… per second)
- Light sensor: Measure the light intensity in lux(normal office lighting is 250 lux, human can start to see at 0 – 1 lux, Sun effect more than 1000 lux ). this help to create the following options: turn back the cellular the sound goes off, or if it is in a dark place the phone increase the ringing volume and so on.
- Linear acceleration sensor: Measure the linear acceleration (is the same as acceleration above but it remove the Earth gravity effect, to become linear as in depart or stop in motion)
- Magnetic field sensor: Measure the magnetic field in μT (Micro Tesla) in all directions, this can help to find the Earth magnetic North direction or any desired magnetic direction, also help to find where we have a magnetic field around the phone and how its value, this help to detect electrical field and metal. So sometimes called metal detector. The magnetic field change in amplitude and direction when enter some metal, so this help to find those metal when the field changed dramatically. this also help in some precision to find metallic pipes under tiles / floor and embedded in wall, also can help to find steel rod in concrete columns (superficial rods) and so one (Cannot detect Gold 😦 )
- Microphone: This a normal microphone to get the sound to the device but also get its amplitude, so we can know the noise level in decibel (dB). For an idea a studio human starting to hear from 0-1 dBb, recorder studio should be not more than 20dB, normal conversation 40 to 60dB, where 60dB is noisy ambient, airplane 80-90dB and rocket at 120dB (logarithmic scale, in logarithm scale mean that a noise of an additional 1dB mean it is greater 10 times in power, human can notice easily 3dB in change). for more…, more…,more… and more.
- speaker: Speaker is where the sound exist the device, and this may has 70dB.
- Orientation sensor: This base on Earth magnetic field and the smartphone direction.
- Pressure sensor: Measure the atmospheric pressure sensor in mPa (milli-Pascal). The 1Atmospheric is 1bar pressure = 101325Pa in normal condition. When the pressure goes above 100000Pa the weather turn warmer or hot, and below 96000Pa is colder.
- Proximity sensor: This determine if an object pass in front of the phone, this help to create the following options: turn back the cellular the sound goes off, take the phone near the ear and the phone call someone, or detect a motion, or stealth.
- Ambient temperature sensor: Detect the ambient temperature (sensor putted in the opposite side of the battery) and this may affect by battery and screen temperature if it is on for a long time.
- Relative humidity sensor: Measure the relative humidity of the ambient air, below 40% is dry and above 70 is humid. The humidity indicate the amount of water vapour in the air.
Cell phone Operating system (OS)
Each cell phone may has its own operating system, and this OS created by mobile manufacture. The latest smartphone has his own operating system as Nokia, Motorola, Sony-Ericson, Sony, LG, iPhone, Samsung, blackberry, HTC, Microsoft… (latest number is 83 cell phone manufacture)for more….
After the launch of Android OS all the story changed, and now they are combined in categories as follow: iPhone has still his own OS from Apple, Samsung, Motorola, HTC… have Android OS, also HTC, and others have windows phone OS. the OS are: Android, Apple iOS, Symbian, Blackberry OS, BlackBerry playbook OS , WebOS, Bada OS, Windows Mobile, Windows Phone OS, and MeeGo OS. for more details…
How to select your smartphone
You should take attention to some features you may interest.
first, Do you interested on speed? So you have to look to CPU core model, CPU frequency (GHz), Ram capacity and the operating system. And the OS is the most important. In the market today we have Android OS which is slow comparing to Apple iOS (iPhone) and other OS. As you add application to your phone the Android OS will slow down due to fragment memory, in the market we have defragmenter software and this can enhance 30% of fragment memory but Android still slower more than 50% or 100% (It take twice the time when using base application (built-in).
Second, are you interested to memory capacity for data storage? You should ask if you can add memory to your phone. Android allow you to add; and its hardware is has this capability but iPhone cannot. But also Android need more memory to run its multi-tasking application where Apple iOS need less memory because he run one application at a time.
Third, In Apple iOS you cannot use your phone as USB flash memory and you should have iTunes to transfer data, but Android allow you to manage your data in and out as you use a simple USB memory.
Fourth, ask if you want high video quality and sound, usually iPhone has slightly better, but others use Android system have good quality (Samsung, HTC, Motorola, Sony, LG…)
Fifth, what types of sensors you want, which sensors are important for you and which you don’t mind.
sixth, screen size, are you prefer for big size for more clarity or some of such device allow to see graphs and engineering drawing better, but is it practical to take with you such size of phone where you go?
seventh, do you mind about paid application or you prefer most of them to be free. Android market is an open source and flexible and has higher number of application are free. Android has higher number of unstable application compared to iPhone this due to open source and some developers still have bugs in their software. Microsoft mobile is slower that iPhone but slightly better than Android and has the disadvantage of the iPhone. Some windows phone OS ( version 7) is almost empty, does not has any advantage. (version 8) is better but still has bugs as Android especially Arabic versions.
Eighth, are you worry about battery storage? take a look to mAh of the battery and from which material is made.
Ninth, Android is fully compatible with Google as search, YouTube, Gmail, Google Earth, messenger… and any service from Google. iPhone fully compatible with Apple computers and software. BlackBerry is an operating system whose main characteristic is multitasking as Android and now they planning to install windows phone OS but the BlackBerry OS itself is limited to some feature like internet and messaging are very fast but its application in the market is limited. Symbian is used by Nokia, Samsung, and Sony Ericsson and also it is fast but limited in the application in the market but it is multitasking. for more… there are 10th of site describe the advantage and disadvantage, but some of them are not objective.
Is electronica pad reader, there are many types. Some of them can read news and PDF (Acrobat Reader) or books format, only for reading and making some notes and highlighting.
Some of them are similar to smartphone with bigger screen 7″, 10″ diagonal screen and some have intermediate size. The most famous are iPad (Apple OS), Samsung (Android OS), LG, Kindle, HP, ASUS, Lenovo, Panasonic…some can accept SIM card (to make call) some not. for more…